The role of chimerism monitoring following HSCT

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The role of chimerism monitoring following HSCT

One major medical advancement during the last 60 years has been the introduction of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) from bone marrow (BM), peripheral blood (PB) or cord-blood (CB) as a curative treatment for patients with malignant or non-malignant hematological diseases. In 1957 the first attempts of performing bone marrow transplantation in two patients suffering from a chronic leukaemia were made (Thomas, Lochte et al. 1957). The initial results of these treatments were however very poor with most patients dying of complications directly related to the transplantation. With the detection and increasing understanding of the importance of the HLA system (Human Leucocyte Antigens), results of stem cell transplantations improved markedly. However, the great leap for substantial improvement of outcomes after transplantation was the detection and implementation of modern immunosuppressive therapy (Granot and Storb 2020). Today HSCT is still the only curative treatment for patients with malignant or non-malignant hematological diseases (Gratwohl and Niederwieser 2012, Granot and Storb 2020).